Sunday, January 19, 2020

Poes Fall of The House of Usher Essay: Gloomy Images :: Fall House Usher Essays

Gloomy Images from The Fall of the House of Usher In Poe’s The Fall of the House of Usher the narrator first views the house of Usher and perceives a mystery incapable of being solved. Foreboding imaginings keep coming into his mind in spite of rational thinking and reasoning. As he says, there are things beyond our ability to rationalize. He rationalizes that if he could look at things differently or in a brighter light, he might be able to change it, but when he looks into the lake he sees, with even more fear before, a mirror image of the house in all its darkness. The eye-like windows of the house reflect back at him. This paragraph is the epitome of the Romantic movement and the story itself makes many direct and indirect references to Romanticism. Poe's references to Van Weber and Fuseli are direct references to European Romanticists. Poe wrote this story when Romanticism was at its height in Europe. The neoclassic world view had given way to the realm of the emotion. No longer was art or life looked upon as a set of rules that if one followed one could rationalize and make a sense of order out of things. Now, one looked at the emotion beneath the rational. And if that emotion was dark and even evil, it was still beautiful because it expressed a truth. Whereas Hawthorne, in Young Goodman Brown, viewed good and evil as something outside of ourselves, such as a witch or a devil, Poe seems to look within the very soul of man. The first element of Romanticism which Poe seems to incorporate into our paragraph and into the story is the moving away from neoclassic rationality when he says that when he looked upon the house he was "forced to fall back on the unsatisfactory conclusion that . . . the reason, and the analysis, of this power lay among considerations beyond our depth." In the story, he also speaks of abandoning reason in his struggles with fear. Reason does not seem to help here. Reason has gone the way of the neoclassicists. In another part of the story, Poe speaks of the sentience, or consciousness of feeling, of vegetable which seems to grow out of the ordered placement or arrangement of the stones. But the consciousness of feeling does not come until the element of decay and fungi is added to the ordered structure.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

High school dropouts: proposal Essay

This research seeks to answer the question of the influence that dropping out of high school has on a person’s tendency toward crime. Studies have shown that most persons who do not have a high school diploma are at an economic disadvantage compared to those who have finished high school. It has also been shown that many prisons have a high concentration of members who have not finished high school. This study will take questions to a group of inmates at a local prison as well as a group of high school students in the same area. It will use questionnaires that contain items which attempt to probe issues concerning the criminal exposure of inmates during and after high school as well as that of current high school students. The results will be analyzed and correlated using graphs and charts in order to shed light on the influence that the lack of a high school diploma has on criminal activity. Introduction Several reasons have been cited by researchers to explain why students decide to drop out of high school. One of these reasons is a lack of adequate early-childhood preparation (Reynolds et al. , 2001). Children who receive inadequate educational preparation in the early stages of their lives often find it difficult to grasp the concepts being taught at the high school levels. These children might also not have had proper exposure to the types of behaviors and study habits necessary for success in high school. These, and other problems associated with them, often lead to an inability to cope with the demands of the educational environment (2001). Lack of adequate financial support also plays a part in causing students to drop out of school (Ingrum, 2006; Reynolds et al., 2001). It is often the case that students are unable to access the materials necessary for success in school due to lack of funds. Furthermore, poverty often drives students to seek jobs (or even less honorable ways of earning money) before their high school education officially ends. This often has also to do with a lack of appropriate emotional and family support, which often ebbs when finances are low. Furthermore, some parents of these students have hardly attained high school diplomas themselves and are therefore incapable of assisting these children with assignments (Sum et al., 2003). Finally a lack of intellectual aptitude, which manifests in the form of learning disabilities, has been cited as having a significant part to play in prompting students to drop out of school (Ingrum, 2006). Schools are largely accommodating to those persons of average intelligence who have little or no endogenous difficulties learning. These students often find it particularly difficult to perform even the fundamental functions of education, such as reading and simple arithmetic. Many who do drop out are disadvantaged compared to their counterparts who possess diplomas. These people are more likely to be unemployed, as employers for substantial and adequately paying jobs generally seek high school graduates. These persons are also more likely to be underemployed, as it is often difficult to find full time positions that seek to employ persons who have not completed high school. Because of these previously mentioned effects, high school dropouts are also more likely to be on welfare, and it has also been demonstrated that these persons are more likely to be incarcerated (Lochner & Moretti, 2003). Many programs exist that center on the rehabilitation of dropouts because such persons are considered more likely to be desperate. The reality of being marginalized when it comes to eligibility for adequately paying jobs often drives persons toward feelings of low self worth and even toward such extreme measures as crime (Lochner & Moretti, 2003). It is often the case that persons who fall into this desperate category are those who have mental or physical challenges and who need the help of these programs (Ingrum, 2006). However, a large proportion of them are considered more likely to have emotional/behavioral problems, and it is quite often members of this group of dropouts that show up in prison populations (Lochner & Moretti, 2003). Such persons are considered a drain on the government for several reasons, one of which is lost revenue from taxes. Persons who have no high school diploma are usually able to command lower wages or salaries than those who have graduated. This lower wage translates to a lower portion of income tax payable to the government. Furthermore, these persons are often also on welfare, and the cost of these programs to the government increase with each person that benefits from it. The cost of prison programs is also significant to the government. Since, therefore, it is considered that the prison population contains a higher concentration of dropouts than the general population (Lochner & Moretti, 2003), it might be seen that high school dropouts contribute more on average to the drain on the government due to prison programs than do members of the general population. Hypothesis Lack of education as demonstrated by dropping out of high-school leads to an increased likelihood of criminal arrests in young people. Methodology: variables and instrumentation The main instrument that will be used in this study is the questionnaire. This will be administered to 130 prison inmates from (NAME OF PRISON) in (NAME OF CITY & STATE) and 130 students of a high school in the same neighborhood. The questionnaire given to the inmates will consist of approximately 25-30 items that will deal with the level of high school education attained and arrests suffered by the inmate. The participants will be given choices regarding their schooling, ranging from below eighth grade level (< 8) to below twelfth grade level (< 12). They will also be given a chance to indicate whether high school diplomas were received by the time they reached 18 years of age or after 18 years. The questionnaire will also contain items that deal with the inmates’ criminal history. Items will attempt to elicit information concerning the number of arrests participants have experienced. It will also distinguish between number of arrests and number of convictions. Participants will also provide information regarding the number of juvenile arrests and convictions they have had, as well as the length of the sentence(s) which they currently serve and/or have served in the past. The questionnaires for the students will include items concerning the students’ career goals, role models, access to homework help, and the difficulty of specific core classes or skills (Mathematics, English, and Reading). They will be asked to give their GPA’s. The students will also be asked questions about those they know who have dropped out of school. They will be asked how many of their friends or acquaintances dropped out in the different grades—ninth to twelfth, and ask to rate the degree to which these dropouts’ behaviors might be considered deviant. The students will also be asked whether they ever considered dropping out of school and whether they think they would. Finally, they will be asked questions concerning their exposure to weapons and people who commit crimes. The responses to the questions for both groups will all be presented on a Likert scale ranging from â€Å"strongly agree† to â€Å"strongly disagree. † Interviews will also be sought with two or three of these inmates. The possibility of conducting an interview via the internet (instant messaging or voice programs) or via phone will be investigated. The interview questions will be more open ended, but will tend toward eliciting information concerning the inmates’ views on how they consider their lack of a high school diploma to have influenced their current situation. No interviews will be sought with the students.

Friday, January 3, 2020

What Is Gaelic Definition, History, and Modern Usage

Gaelic is the common but incorrect term for Irish and Scottish traditional languages, both of which are Celtic in origins from the Goidelic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. In Ireland, the language is called Irish, while in Scotland, the correct term is Gaelic. Though Irish and Gaelic share a common linguistic ancestor, they diverged and changed over time into two distinct languages.   Key Takeaways Gaelic is the common but incorrect term for Irish and Scottish traditional languages.Though Irish and Gaelic are derived from the same ancestor, they are two distinct languages.Attempts have been made to eradicate both Irish and Gaelic, but revival movements have kept them from disappearing.   Attempts were made in both Ireland and Scotland to eradicate the language and the culture associated with Gaelic, with varying degrees of success. However, both countries have seen recent revivals of their native tongues. While Irish is recognized as an official language by the European Union, Gaelic is not, as it is classified as an Indigenous Language. Roughly 39.8% of Irish people speak Irish, with the highest concentration of speakers in Galway, while only 1.1% of Scots speak Gaelic, almost exclusively on the Isle of Skye.   Definition and Origins The term â€Å"Gaelic† takes its name from the Gaels, a group of settlers that arrived in Scotland from Ireland around the 6th century, though both Irish and Scottish Gaelic began to develop prior to the settlement of the Gaels in Scotland. The Gaelic and Irish languages are both rooted in Ogham, an ancient Irish alphabet that evolved into early and later Middle Irish, which spread across the island of Ireland and into the northern and western parts of Scotland via trade and farming practices. After Gaelic moved from Ireland to Scotland, two distinct languages began to develop independently of one another.   Historic Irish   Irish is a recognized indigenous language, with ancient roots that evolved into the preferred literary language of Ireland between the 13th and 18th centuries. The Tudors were the first British rulers to attempt to diminish the impact of Irish by restricting legal and administrative proceedings to English, though later English monarchs fluctuated between encouraging and discouraging its use. For centuries, Irish remained the common language of the people. It was ultimately the introduction of a national education system in the 1800s in Ireland by the British government that prohibited Irish to be spoken in schools, leaving poor, uneducated Irish people as the primary speakers of the language. The Great Famine in the 1840s had the most devastating effect on poor communities and, by association, the Irish language. Though Irish experienced a dramatic decline during the 19th century, it was considered a source of Irish national pride, particularly during the independence movement in the early 20th century. Irish was listed as an official language in both the 1922 and the 1937 constitutions. Historic Gaelic   Gaelic was brought to Scotland from the Kingdom of Dalriada in Northern Ireland around the 1st century, though it was not a politically prominent language until the 9th century, when Kenneth MacAlpin, a Gaelic king, united the Picts and the Scots. By the 11th century, Gaelic was the most commonly spoken language in most of Scotland. Though the Norman invasion of the British Isles during the 11th and 12th centuries had little impact on Irish, it effectively isolated Gaelic speakers to the northern and western parts of Scotland. In fact, Gaelic was never traditionally spoken in the southern areas of Scotland, including Edinburgh. Political turmoil created a growing divide between the southern and northern parts of Scotland. In the north, the physical and political isolation allowed Gaelic to define the culture of the Scottish Highlands, including a societal structure made up of familial clans. When Scotland and Britain were unified under the Acts of Union 1707, Gaelic lost its legitimacy as legal and administrative language, though it maintained significance as the language of highland clans and the language of the Jacobites, a group intent on re-establishing the House of Stewart to the Scottish throne. After the defeat of Prince Charles Edward Stewart and the final Jacobite Rebellion in 1746, the British government banned all elements of Highland culture—including the Gaelic language—in order to dismantle the clan structure and prevent the possibility of another uprising. Gaelic was lost almost to extinction, though efforts by Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott saw the revival of the language as a romantic ideology rather than a useful means of communication. Modern Usage In Ireland, the Gaelic League was established in 1893 to promote a strong sense of national identity and preserve the Irish language. Administrative and legal work is done in Irish, and the language is taught to all primary school students alongside English. Use of the language fell out of fashion for a few decades, but Irish is increasingly being used in formal and informal settings, especially by Irish millennials. Gaelic use in Scotland is also on the rise, though its use, especially in southern parts of the country, is contentious. Since Gaelic was never a traditional language in places like Edinburgh, adding Gaelic translations to English road signs can be seen as an attempt to create a separate nationalist identity or as cultural tokenism. In 2005, the Gaelic Language Act was unanimously passed to recognize Gaelic as an official language. As of 2019, it is still not recognized by the European Union.   Sources Campsie, Alison. â€Å"Gaelic Speakers Map: Where in Scotland Is Gaelic Thriving?†Ã‚  The Scotsman, Johnston Press, 30 Sept. 2015.Chapman, Malcolm.  The Gaelic Vision in Scottish Culture. Croom Helm, 1979.â€Å"Gaelic Language Skills .†Ã‚  Scotlands Census, 2011.â€Å"Irish Language and the Gaeltacht .†Ã‚  Central Statistics Office, 11 July 2018.Jack, Ian. â€Å"Why Im Saddened by Scotland Going Gaelic | Ian Jack.†Ã‚  The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 11 Dec. 2010.Oliver, Neil.  A History of Scotland. Weidenfeld Nicolson, 2010.Orton, Izzy. â€Å"How Millennials Are Breathing Fresh Life into the Ancient Irish Language.†Ã‚  The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 7 Dec. 2018.

Thursday, December 26, 2019

US v. Wong Kim Ark

United States v. Wong Kim Ark, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court on March 28, 1898, confirmed that under the Citizenship Clause of Fourteenth Amendment, the United States government cannot deny full U.S. citizenship to any person born within the United States. The landmark decision established the doctrine of â€Å"birthright citizenship,† a key issue in the debate over illegal immigration in the United States.   Fast Facts: United States v. Wong Kim Ark Case Argued: March 5, 1897Decision Issued: March 28, 1898Petitioner: United States Government Respondent: Wong Kim ArkKey Question: Can the U.S. government deny U.S. citizenship to a person born in the United States to immigrant or otherwise non-citizen parents? Majority Decision: Associate Justice Gray, joined by Justices Brewer, Brown, Shiras, White, and Peckham.Dissenting: Chief Justice Fuller, joined by Justice Harlan (Justice Joseph McKenna did not participate)Ruling: The Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment grants U.S. citizenship to all children born to foreign parents while on American soil, with a limited set of exceptions. Facts of the Case Wong Kim Ark was born in 1873 in San Francisco, California, to Chinese immigrant parents who remained subjects of China while residing in the United States. Under the U.S. Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment ratified in 1868, he became a citizen of the United States at the time of his birth. In 1882, the U.S. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which denied U.S. citizenship to existing Chinese immigrants and banned the further immigration of Chinese laborers into the United States. In 1890, Wong Kim Ark traveled abroad to visit his parents who had permanently moved back to China earlier the same year. When he returned to San Francisco, U.S. customs officials allowed his re-entry as a â€Å"native-born citizen.† In 1894, the now 21-year-old Wong Kim Ark went back to China to visit his parents. However, when he returned in 1895, U.S. customs officials denied him entry on the grounds that as a Chinese laborer, he was not a U.S. citizen.   Wong Kim Ark appealed his denial of entry to the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, which ruled on January 3, 1896, that by virtue of having been born in the United States, he was legally a U.S. citizen. The court based its decision on the Fourteenth Amendment and its inherent legal principle of â€Å"jus soli†Ã¢â‚¬â€citizenship based on place of birth. The U.S. government appealed the district court ruling to the United States Supreme Court.   Constitutional Issues The first clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution—the so-called â€Å"Citizenship Clause†Ã¢â‚¬â€bestows full citizenship, along with all rights, privileges, and immunities of citizenship, on all persons born in the United States, regardless of the citizenship status of their parents. The clause states: â€Å"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.†Ã‚   In the case of United States v. Wong Kim Ark the Supreme Court was asked to determine whether or not the federal government, contrary to the Fourteenth Amendment, had the right to deny U.S. citizenship to a person born in the United States to immigrant or otherwise non-citizen parents. In the words of the Supreme Court, it considered the â€Å"single question† of â€Å"whether a child born in the United States, of parent[s] of Chinese descent, who, at the time of his birth, are subjects of the Emperor of China, but have a permanent domicile and residence in the United States, and are there carrying on business, and are not employed in any diplomatic or official capacity under the Emperor of China, becomes at the time of his birth a citizen of the United States.† The Arguments   The Supreme Court heard oral arguments on March 5, 1897. Lawyers for Wong Kim Ark repeated their argument that had been upheld in the district court—that under the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and the principle of jus soli—Wong Kim Ark was an American citizen by virtue of having been born in the United States.   Presenting the federal government’s case, Solicitor General Holmes Conrad argued that since Wong Kim Ark’s parents were subjects of China at the time of his birth, he was also a subject of China and not, according to the Fourteenth Amendment, â€Å"subject to the jurisdiction† of the United States and thus, not a U.S. citizen. The government further argued that because Chinese citizenship law was based on the principle of â€Å"jus sanguinis†Ã¢â‚¬â€that children inherit the citizenship of their parents—it trumped U.S. citizenship law, including the Fourteenth Amendment.   Majority Opinion On March 28, 1898, the Supreme Court ruled 6-2 that Wong Kim Ark had been a U.S. citizen since birth and that â€Å"the American citizenship which Wong Kim Ark acquired by birth within the United States has not been lost or taken away by anything happening since his birth.†Ã‚   In writing the courts majority opinion, Associate Justice Horace Gray held that the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment must be interpreted according to the concept of jus soli as established in English common law, which allowed only three exceptions to birthright citizenship:   children of foreign diplomats,children born while on board foreign public ships at sea, or;children born to citizens of an enemy nation that is actively engaged in hostile occupation of the country’s territory.   Finding that none of the three exceptions to birthright citizenship applied to Wong Kim Ark, the majority concluded that â€Å"during all the time of their said residence in the United States, as domiciled residents therein, the said mother and father of said Wong Kim Ark were engaged in the prosecution of business, and were never engaged in any diplomatic or official capacity under the emperor of China.†Ã‚   Joining Associate Justice Gray in the majority opinion were Associate Justices David J. Brewer, Henry B. Brown, George Shiras Jr., Edward Douglass White, and Rufus W. Peckham.   Dissenting Opinion Chief Justice Melville Fuller, joined by Associate Justice John Harlan, dissented. Fuller and Harlan first argued that U.S. citizenship law had broken away from English common law after the American Revolution. Similarly, they argued that since independence, the citizenship principle of jus sanguinis had been more prevalent in U.S. legal history than the birthright principle of jus soli. When considered in the context of U.S. versus Chinese naturalization law, the dissent argued that â€Å"the children of Chinese born in this country do not, ipso facto, become citizens of the United States unless the Fourteenth Amendment overrides both treaty and statute.† Citing the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which defined U.S. citizens to be â€Å"all persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed,† and had been enacted just two months before the Fourteenth Amendment was proposed, the dissenters argued that the words â€Å"subject to the jurisdiction thereof† in the Fourteenth Amendment carried the same meaning as the words â€Å"and not subject to any foreign power† in the Civil Rights Act. Finally, the dissenters pointed to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which prohibited Chinese immigrants already in the United States from becoming U.S. citizens.   The Impact Ever since it was handed down, the Supreme Court’s United States v. Wong Kim Ark ruling upholding birthright citizenship as a guaranteed right by the Fourteenth Amendment has been the focus of intense debate regarding the rights of foreign minorities born in the United States who claim U.S. citizenship by virtue of their place of birth. Despite many court challenges over the years, the Wong Kim Ark ruling remains the most-often cited and upheld precedent protecting the rights of persons born to undocumented immigrants who were—for whatever purposes—present in the United States at the time of their children’s births. Sources and Further References â€Å"United States v. Wong Kim Ark.† Cornell Law School: Legal Information InstituteEpps, Garrett (2010). â€Å"The Citizenship Clause: A ‘Legislative History’.† American University Law ReviewHo, James C. (2006). â€Å"Defining American: Birthright Citizenship and the Original Understanding of the 14th Amendment.† Green Bag Journal of Law.Katz, Jonathan M. â€Å"Birth of a Birthright.† Politico Magazine.  Woodworth, Marshall B. (1898). â€Å"Who Are Citizens of the United States? Wong Kim Ark Case.† American Law Review.

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

causes of social stratification in named caribbean society

Question: Describe the causes of social stratification in the Caribbean countries. In every known human society there is form of social inequality. This system was derived from events that took place some years ago. Social stratification can be class under the system of Plantation System and Social Mobility. According to Jenniffer Mohammed- Caribbean studies (2011). This rank or position in the social hierarchy is the lowest stratification occupied by the poorest groups who have a low status. The Caribbean stratification has been influence by its history of colonialism plantation slavery. Based on the plantation system the society was rapidly divided into the labour system and ownership, race and†¦show more content†¦The social mobility is influenced by many different things. Education is often cited as a big factor in social mobility, and people who come from lower-class backgrounds often see schooling as a means to learn skills that will open up opportunities in later life. In the 1900’s societies in the Caribbean began to change because educatio n and also marriages. Also the educated men enjoy professional status in society they would go and come back and married light skin women who have money. However, education wasn’t always the way to achieve social mobility in some case. For starters who came from poverty homes of lower class, the colleges and universities charge exorbitant enrolment fees was deter from of certain social classes. The quality of a school can also increase the price of living in a certain area, which can then indirectly exclude some pupils from managing to progress socially education. Therefore as far as downward social mobility goes, economic rising unemployment is major contributors to the growth of the lower social classes. Furthermore in Jamaica colour is still a major issue , that’s why individual have start to detune themselves of a different such as†Show MoreRelatedOlive Senior2649 Words   |  11 PagesJamaica, reporter and sub-editor; Jamaica Information Service, informatio n officer, 1967-69; Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, public relations officer, 1969-71; JCC Journal, editor, 1969-71; Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, Jamaica, publications editor, 1972-77; Social and Economic Studies, editor, 1972-77; freelance writer and researcher, part-time teacher in communications, publishing consultant, and speech writer, Jamaica, 1977-82; Institute of Jamaica PublicationsRead MoreThe Problem Of Colorism : Skin Color, Status, And Inequality1371 Words   |  6 Pagescommentated around the opinions that society had about dark-skinned females compared to fair-skinned females. Cheryl Grills, President of the National Association of Black Psychologists and a featured speaker in the documentary, briefly explained the history of the African-American people as slaves. According to Grills, from 1619 to 1865 people of African descent were locked up and/or treated inhumane. Once African-Americans became free, they were still tre ated by society as a slave. Colorism can beRead MoreThe Causes of Social Exclusion Essay1946 Words   |  8 PagesThe Causes of Social Exclusion Social exclusion refers to inequality in society, where individuals or groups may be cut off in involvement with the wider society. Social exclusion can take a number of forms. An individual or group may be excluded due to their age cohert, gender, race, educational background, neighbourhood, class and more. A class in social terms can be defines as a large scale grouping of people who share common economic resources which stronglyRead More Colonization and the Black Mans Struggle Essay5469 Words   |  22 Pagesreality their social enslavement is actually a much harder and more tiresome task then simply breaking off the shackles of the plantation owners. Their social enslavement is dug deep into the minds of many people in Jamaica, and the fact that most of these people have been in the possession of the power for hundreds of years makes their task all the more difficult. Along with this struggle was the interjection of colonialism into Jamaican society, which brought further social stratification, and leftRead MoreHistory of Social Relations in India6115 Words   |  25 Pagesequations in Indian history No aspect of Indian history has excited more controversy than India s history of social relations. Western indologists and Western-influenced Indian intellectuals have seized upon caste divisions, untouchability, religious obscurantism, and practices of dowry and sati as distinctive evidence of India s perennial backwardness. For many Indologists, these social ills have literally come to define India - and have become almost the exclusive focus of their writings on IndiaRead MoreDetermining the Elite Within Politics and the Judiciary Essay7577 Words   |  31 Pages relationship between British elites and the social structure both past and present was outlined, along with the basic views of those who have commented upon this association. This provided the appropriate context through which to compare the recruitment, structure and power of the named elites. Following the analysis of these three dimensions, it was then possible to assess their relationship with the current British social structure as a totality. Defining the Elite Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesLandscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform Michael Adas, ed., Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History Jack Metzgar, Striking Steel: Solidarity Remembered Janis Appier, Policing Women: The Sexual Politics of Law Enforcement and the LAPD Allen Hunter, ed., Rethinking the Cold War Eric Foner, ed., The New AmericanRead MoreNotes18856 Words   |  76 Pageswhat the Europeans meant by  ­ laiming c to have â€Å"discovered† Africa’s rivers and lakes, which the Africans had known and sailed and fished from all along, and without belaboring the often extremely racist and distorted descriptions of African societies that they purveyed, it will suffice to say that the writings of some of these foreign travelers increased knowledge of Africa in their own countries and ultimately helped Africans to know their continent better. The second reason stemmed fromRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pages...................................................... 447 Exercises .......................................................................................................................................... 449 CHAPTER 14 Reasoning about Causes and Their Effects ................................................... 465 Correlations......................................................................................................................................... 465 Significant Correlations

Monday, December 9, 2019

L&D at Lloyds UK Lloyds Banking Group

Question: Write an essay on LD at Lloyds. Answer: 1. Introduction UK Lloyds Banking Group is a major financial institution in British (Schoenmaker, 2014). The organization is currently undergoing a major restructuring and in the interest of increasing cost to income ratio is laying off 9000 employees. The layoff is of the physical branches that are barely used due to revolution of online banking. The organization has committed to improve their IT services to ensure that the negative impact of a reduced workforce is effectively reduced. Also, to ensure that the negative impact stays minimum, Lloyds have decided to support the front line managers through LD programs. To succeed in the same, the learning needs of the line managers need to be addressed (Senge, 2014). The below report analyzes methods to identify LD needs, the context in which LD needs arise, how LD effects organizational performance and compares various techniques and methods of learning. Furthermore, an understanding of how these needs can be met and validating the effectiveness of the same in reported below For the case of Lloyds the report identifies coaching and induction as the best way to meet the learning needs of line managers. The other learning methods such as mentoring and shadowing have been considered but rejected as the same are not effective with a reduced workforce. The needs would be majorly met through focus groups, observation and discussion, online training and on job experience, keeping in mind the limited availability of branch staff and management (Liben, 2013). Also, the above LD plan is initially deployed only in selected branches of Lloyds to test the increase in performance data and accordingly reconfigure the LD plan if required 2. LD needs 2.1 Methods to identify LD needs Organizations are increasingly recognizing the need for human resource development. Learning and Development is one of the key methods to ensure efficient workforce. The LD program designed should be aligned to the business needs and priorities to achieve value. Also, the program should be cost-efficient delivering performance improvement and effective career development. Hence, it is no wonder that organizational requirements and priorities have to be initially identified to understand LD requirements (Moon, 2013). Organizational Requirements at Lloyds: Develop skills of the existing workforce to ensure minimum negative impact of the layoff Develop an efficient LD practice to ensure that the organizational restricting does not affect the financial output of the organization To be the best bank for customers Ensure customer satisfaction by providing quick and efficient services To ensure minimum errors and complaints that may lead to damage of reputation (Kolb, 2014) Note that all the above mentioned requirements are fulfilled by Line mangers and hence enhancing their skills is crucial. Need analysis can be made through Document research: Reviewing the various documents on business plans, goal statements, critical issue reports, staffing reports and so on. Interviews: Talking to both senior and junior employees to understand what they need to achieve the companys goals Observations: Watching how tasks are being done and how they can be changed to meet the business requirements Surveys: Collecting requirements through questionnaire Group discussion: Conducting discussion groups. (Edwards, 2013) In case of Lloyds all the above method analysis techniques have to be optimally implemented to understand the programs that need to be developed to support line managers to work in a limited workforce environment. 2.2 What leads to LD needs LD needs are required in cases where an improvement in the skills of the employees of the organization is needed. LD is present in Lloyds at all levels as learning is a continuous process that leads to efficient employees and management, also ensure professional development. The below are some of the contexts where the requirement of LD is high Organizational Restructuring: A change in the organizational design and business process is one of the key factors that raise the need of LD. To redefine how an organization works, the employees of the organization should be trained first to be change ready and later be ready to learn and understand the processes in place (Robbins, 2013). Layoffs: When a reduction in workforce is seen, it is obvious that the remaining employees would have to compensate for the loss. To make sure that the impact of layoff is kept to minimum, the existing workforce has to be trained and their skills need to be sharpened (Guthrie, 2014). Performance Improvement: To ensure increase in productive levels of employees Professional development: To ensure all round development of employees Cost-effective labor: To help employees perform multiple tasks at one go. An efficient and skilled employee would be able to work quickly and be effective at assisting a customer. The knowledge acquired through various learning activities would help the employee, deal with the customer in an improved manner, ensuring that the customer is satisfied. All this inevitably leads to improvement in the organizational performance, as organization itself is made up of employees and the development of an employee directly effects the organizational performance. 2.3 Learning Methods and techniques In the context of Lloyds, four main learning methods are identified. Coaching: It is a one-on-one discussions of employees to understand the learning needs and focuses on improving performance and development skills of individuals. The coach observes, listens to what the line manager is doing and guides him to align his work to the business requirements (Crane, 2014). Coaching is usually done by an experienced managers who themselves are trained in delivery the business requirements Mentoring: It is extremely similar to coaching and hence the words are used interchangeably. However, mentoring usually involves highly skilled managers who have focused experience on a particular job and are expert in one key area (Johnson, 2015). These managers guide the line manager to improve the skills of line managers. Shadowing: It is more of an on job training where the trainee follow the trainers to observer how the trainer work on various tasks and handle customers Material Learning: This method provides documents written on various business process and the trainee has to read through all of them and give a written test to improve skills Of the above mentioned methods Coaching and Mentoring are considered by Lloyd as these can be done even if focused group setup. Due to the reduce in workforce shadowing is not ideal and material learning is time consuming 3. How are LD needs met 3.1 LD Interventions To meet the LD needs, Lloyds can use two main methods of learning intervention. Induction: Induction is the process of helping the employees get accustomed to the new environment of work. The induction program comprises of orientation, where the expectation from the employee and the business requirements are clearly explained. All the key policies, functions, an introduction to senior employees and so on are done to help the employees understand their role in the organization (Kutsyuruba, 2015). At Lloyds orientation would be done to all the new front line managers to set expectations and goals, and provide them a socializing platform with their mentors. The available training programs, LD policies, departmental organization, performance management system etc., would be detailed to the employees E-learning: One other effective learning intervention is e-learning. An e-learning portal can be established to provide formal training, through recorded sessions by various managers, online documentation, webinars, virtual learning environments and so on. The major advantage with e-learning activities is that the training sessions can happen from anywhere around the world and it is not necessary to gather groups in one place (Marquardt, 2014). E-learning followed by coaching and mentoring will provide a complete LD program for the line managers of Lloyds. 3.2 Understanding the learning methods efficiency The LD program has induction as its first action, where the line managers are explained their roles and responsibilities, the business requirements and are informed regarding the various LD programs both mandatory and optional they would have to undergo, to achieve organizational goals. The second step is to conduct e-learning sessions, where all the basic material that helps the employees understand how things work and how they need to work to ensure customer satisfaction. Several classes on soft skills are also delivered as a part of the activity (Robles, 2012). Then the line managers has focused group discussions with the senior management to understand if all the formal learning needs have been fulfilled. The line managers are then divided into smaller groups and are coached by senior managers as a part of on job training. In case a line manager requires additional intervention mentoring is done. 4. Conclusion The LD practices of coaching and mentoring when combined with induction programs and e-learning activities can prove to be highly beneficial especially in contexts where a reduction in workforce is seen. However, this strategy is designed based on the business requirements at Lloyds. The same may not be true for all organizations and hence, a critical need analysis should be done to develop LD programs for individual organizations. 5. References Crane, T.G. and Patrick, L.N., 2014. The heart of coaching: Using transformational coaching to create a high-performance coaching culture. Edwards, G., Elliott, C., Iszatt-White, M. and Schedlitzki, D., 2013. Critical and alternative approaches to leadership learning and development. Management Learning, 44(1), pp.3-10. Guthrie, J.P., Li, P. and Meschke, F., 2014, January. Layoffs, Affective Human Capital, and Firm Performance. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2014, No. 1, p. 15663). Academy of Management. Johnson, W.B. and Ridley, C.R., 2015. The elements of mentoring. Macmillan. Kolb, D.A., 2014. Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. FT press. Kutsyuruba, B. and Walker, K., 2015. The Role of Trust in Developing Teacher Leaders Through Early-Career Induction and Mentoring Programs. Antistasis, 5(1). Liben, L.S. ed., 2013. Development and learning: conflict or congruence?. Psychology Press. Moon, J.A., 2013. Reflection in learning and professional development: Theory and practice. Routledge. Marquardt, M.J., 2014. Building the learning organization: Mastering the 5 elements for corporate learning. Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Robbins, S., Judge, T.A., Millett, B. and Boyle, M., 2013. Organisational behaviour. Pearson Higher Education AU. Robles, M.M., 2012. Executive perceptions of the top 10 soft skills needed in todays workplace. Business Communication Quarterly, 75(4), pp.453-465. Schoenmaker, D. and Peek, T., 2014. The state of the banking sector in Europe. Senge, P.M., 2014. The fifth discipline fieldbook: Strategies and tools for building a learning organization. Crown Business.

Monday, December 2, 2019

The Galaxy Essays - DraftGerald Roch, Chitto Harjo,

The Galaxy June 15, 2007 It was the strangest thing. It all began on the evening of June 15th 2005. My grandmother passed away. This was weird because no body even knew she was dying. Well maybe it was just her time to go. It was a very rough couple of days. My sisters, my mother and I set up the calling hours for her wake, and the time and place for her funeral. It was vary hard to concentrate on these tasks when one of our loved ones had passed away. About two weeks had passed and things were begging to return to normal. It had been a tremendous loss for our family, but we all knew that we had to get on with our lives. I recall a message that was left on my mothers answering machine reporting that my grandmother had written a will. It was discovered when all of her things were being cleaned out of her home. Not a single soul within my grandmothers family knew about this will, so it was a big surprise. The message on the machine clearly stated that the will was going to be opened and read to the family, on July 5, 2005 at 1:00 p.m. at the county court house. Everyone was anxious to find out just what he had left. No body was expecting much because they knew my grandmother didnt have very much. She had raised seven children on her own. The day had finally come. It was just about 1:00 p.m. and the will was being opened. It read as follows: Well all, I guess it was my time to go. I am in a better place now, where there is no suffering or pain. I need you all to promise me that you will be happy for me. I know it is hard to do, but it is for the best. Now I need you all to take a deep breath for there is something that you all must know. I have been saving some things up over the last 50 years, mainly because I knew this day was coming, I just wasnt sure when. You all know that I was one for money. We never had much, so when I made a little extra, I was investing it in large corporations, trying to make a few bucks. After quite a few years, I have managed to acquire $120 million to split between you all. Now, you all arent getting the same, but remember to be happy with what you get, because it could has been nothing. To Patty, Marylyn, Steve, Mickey, and Debbie, I leave $2 million each. I know this doesnt seem like a lot, but when I was put in the nursing home, not one of you bothered to visit me. I am ashamed of you all. You were raised better. To Sally, I leave my home in Sandfordville, (including the 300 acres) and my camp in South Colton. I love you Sally. You took good care of me, and I will never forget that. I am also giving you $10 million to use for what you please! Lastly, to Diane and girls. Well what to I say to all of you? You put your lives on hold for me. When I became dependent on others, you were there to feed me and bathe me. You loved me unconditionally, so with this reason I leave you each $20 million. Diane, go do something nice for yourself, and girl, MAKE GRAMMY PROUD! Remember that I do love you all the same, but this is the way it must be. Two years had passed, and I had just graduated from college, majoring in business management. By this time, I had only used up about $1 million paying off college loans, a car payment, and an occasional outfit or 2, or 200! But I was bored. I had a little of $19 million and education, and no place to use it. That soon was about to change. It was one night in my dreams that it all came to me. I had always wanted to run an over-under bar in Potsdam, NY, but I was either too young, or too poor.